Essay/Term paper: The taming of the shrew
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The Taming of Katherine
In Shakespeare's time, the ideal wife was subservient to her husband, and it was the husband's inherent duty to take care of his wife's money, property, and person, including both physical and moral welfare. If a man's spouse proved rebellious, he had the right to physically brutalize her into submission. This social phenomenon of domesticating an unruly woman as one might an animal was the inspiration for The Taming of the Shrew. Kate fits the stereotype of the shrewish woman at the play's outset and the Renaissance ideal of the subservient, adoring wife by the play's close, but her last speech as the final monologue of the play-rightly interpreted-undercuts her stereotype.
Even before his initial encounter with Katherine, Petruchio knows exactly how to handle her resistance. In a short monologue, Petruchio proclaims in great detail just how his unorthodox approach will work. He plans not to use violence, but psychological warfare. For every evil Katherine displays, Petruchio will praise the opposing virtue in her character-even if it does not exist:
"Say that she rail, why then I'll tell her plain
She sings as sweetly as a nightingale.
Say that she frown, I'll say she looks as clear
As morning roses newly wash'd with dew
...If she deny to be wed, I'll crave the day
When I shall ask the banns and when be married" (II, i).
Petruchio plans to win this woman over by simply confronting her temper with flattery. Of course, the infamous Kate lives up to her reputation and is every bit as cold and difficult as Petruchio has been told to expect. After observing arguments, base insults, and even a blow inflicted upon Petruchio, the audience begins to lose faith in Petruchio's unusual methods. This extremely clever gentleman, however, will not easily give up such a dowry.
Still, he does not wish to waste a vast amount of time and energy on a woman that could just as soon walk away and leave him looking foolish despite his best efforts. He knows that, in order to tame her, he must first obtain her. Though little ground has been gained in the fight against her inflexibility, Petruchio, upon Baptista's return, tells him the outcome of his meeting with Kate. He speaks of a bond so natural and strong that they have agreed to marry on the following Sunday. Instantly, Kate recognizes the lies in his assertions and tries to convince her father of the true nature of their meeting, calling Petruchio, "...one half lunatic, a madcap ruffian and a swearing Jack, that thinks with oaths to face the matter out" (II, i). Though one might expect Kate's complaints sway her father's opinion of Petruchio, Petruchio adheres to his original statements. He discards her complaints as nothing more than silly falsehoods in a playful game: "'Tis bargain'd 'twixt us twain, being alone, that she shall still be curst in company" (II, i, 297). Even more incredible, Petruchio enthusiastically convinces all present of Katherine's sincere love and affection saying:
"I tell you 'tis incredible to believe
How much she loves me. O, the kindest Kate!
She hung about my neck, and kiss on kiss
She vied so fast, protesting oath on oath,
That in a twink she won me over to her love" (II, i).
To the delight of all present-except for Kate, that is-Baptista immediately gives her hand to Petruchio.
Soon, their wedding day approaches, and, as part of his campaign to make Kate realize the error of her current disposition, Petruchio makes a point of embarrassing her. Biondello's detailed description of the groom's appearance portrays Petruchio coming in ridiculous dress to the formal occasion. Through his outrageous clothing and extremely harsh ways, Petruchio blatantly mocks Kate. In the same way that Kate's loud and irritating disposition caused her family so much embarrassment, Kate suffers embarrassment at her future husband's inexcusable conduct. The way that Petruchio strikes the priest reminds all of Kate's violence toward Bianca and countless others. Though Kate never shows knowledge of Petruchio's intentions of taming her, she receives her first sample of just how difficult married life will be.
Now, under the laws of marriage, Petruchio has legal and societal approval to quit all previous games and, once and for all, put Katherine in her place. He does not resort to the common method of violent persuasion. The time soon after their marriage shows the effectiveness of Petruchio's psychological methods. No longer does he flatter Kate, but perpetrates a moderate torture upon her mind and body. Masked under the guise of love, Petruchio finds ways to starve her, and perform other various punishments to punish her for her turbulent and unyielding nature. After falling victim to such treatment, Kate becomes absolutely frustrated:
"The more my wrong, the more his spite appears.
...[I] Am starv'd for meat, giddy for lack of sleep,
With oaths kept waking, and with brawling fed.
And that which spites me more than all these wants,
He does it under the name of perfect love..." (IV, iii).
Later in this scene, when the Haberdasher presents the hat and gown commissioned for Kate, Petruchio openly criticizes its design. Katherine, delighted by its structure and fashion, angrily opposes her husband. Of course, this reminder of her shrewish nature causes Petruchio to punish her further by revoking the Haberdasher's products altogether. Unfortunately for Kate, it seems she cannot resolve her problems with tantrums. Kate is slowly learning that her marriage leaves no choice but submission.
After many pains, Kate masters the practice of silence and unthinking agreement. She comes to realize that she must swallow her pride and submit to the whims of her husband, no matter how irrational. Traveling to Baptista's house, he tests her by intentionally mislabeling the sun as the moon. Naturally, Kate responds by calling attention to his mistake. Angered at such disagreement, Petruchio threatens to turn around and abandon the trip. Though Kate still has a great deal of independence and wildness in her character, Petruchio's newest test of obedience, along with the impetus of possible repercussion, forces her to grudgingly concede:
"Forward, I pray, since we have come so far,
And be it moon, or sun, or what you please.
And if you please to call it a rush-candle,
Henceforth I vow it shall be so for me" (IV, v).
One might argue that such submission proves Kate newfound tameness. However, according to Petruchio, Kate still needs to learn more. He does not want to fight over every minuscule issue of obedience, and the fact that Kate submits grudgingly proves to Petruchio and his audience that more work is necessary.
From this point until the end of the play, Petruchio makes astonishing progress in the domestication of Katherine, mainly because of his unrelenting determination. The final scene of the play depicts Petruchio's final test of obedience. Confident in Katherine's level of devotion, he wagers against the two other newlywed husbands, Hortensio and Lucentio. The bet-testing the obedience of their wives-holds very high monetary stakes and important bragging rights. The clear winner turns out to be Kate. Not only is she the only wife to report when beckoned, but she also delivers a lengthy speech outlining the virtue of an obedient wife and the importance of the husband's role as lord and protector when she says:
"...Thy husband is thy lord, thy life, thy keeper,
Thy head, thy sovereign; one that cares for thee,
And for thy maintenance; commits his body
To painful labour both by sea and land
To watch the night in storms, the day in cold,
Whilst thou liest warm at home, secure and safe;
And craves no other tribute at thy hands
But love, fair looks, and true obedience..." (V, ii).
Of course, everyone observing this incredible change in Kate's character is astounded, as she has demonstrated, most convincingly, just how effective Petruchio's work has been. And thus Petruchio's unconventional methods have tamed the cursed shrew.
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Love concepts in Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew
In his comedy The Taming of the Shrew, Shakespeare presents his audience with a variety of different concepts of love, such as romantic and rational love, mature and immature love, intimate and reserved love, paternal love and the love of a daughter. The concepts are represented by different characters and contrasted with each other.
I will elaborate on the contrast between the kind of love which is conventional and socially accepted, and the kind of love which is unconventional and, therefore, looked down upon by society.
2. Conventional and unconventional love in The Taming of the Shrew
2.1 The induction
The induction contrasts the two different concepts of love relationships quite sharply.
2.1.1 The lord and the page
The lord and the page represent the conventional concept of love, which is presented as the concept of love which is predominant in the upper class. In Ind.i.103-1281, the lord depicts the wife of a nobleman as her husband’s humble servant who is loyal and obedient to him as she is to her king.
The encounter between the page, whom Hehl calls “das ironisch verzerrte Spiegelbild der gehorsamen Ehefrau”2, and Sly shows another aspect of this concept of love, that is that of distance. Husband and wife call each other “lord” and “madam” (cf. Ind.ii.103-112). Intimacy is nothing which is desired, the partners treat each other with reserved politeness rather than with real affection.
Sly represents the socially less accepted concept of love which is more characteristic of the under class. He desires a certain amount of intimacy, mentally as well as physically. He wants to know his wife as an individual, that is why he wishes to know her name. Sly does not understand that he is supposed to call his own wife “madam”, and therefore he asks:
Alice madam, or Joan madam? (Ind.ii.111).
His concept of sexuality is quite pragmatic, as soon as he believes that he has got a wife, he wants to consummate the marriage, which seems most natural to him.
2.2 The comedy itself
The play itself consists of two plots, which are “constantly and firmly interwoven”3. The main plot deals with the relationship between Katherina and Petruchio; the sub-plot is about Bianca and her suitors. While conventional concepts of love dominate the sub-plot, the main plot deals with a relationship which is very special and unconventional4.
2.2.1 Conventional love: Bianca’s suitors
Bianca is wooed by Lucentio, Hortensio and Gremio, later also by Tranio who takes on Lucentio’s role in society. Bianca’s suitors all represent the conventional, romantic concept of love, especially Lucentio does. He immediately falls in love with Bianca when he sees her for the first time, without having spoken a single word to her; he falls in love with the picture of Bianca as he wants to see her. While telling Tranio about his feelings (cf. I.i.146-176), Lucentio uses about every cliché that love poetry offers him. He compares her to mythical women and praises her physical and mental beauty. Lines like
Tranio, I saw her coral lips to move,
And with her breath she did perfume the air;
Sacred and sweet was all I saw in her. (I.i. 174-176)
are purely Petrarchan and reveal his naive and immature character. Rohrsen refers to Lucentio’s speech to Tranio and points out, “Mit den wenigen Lyrismen in glattem Zeilenstil ist Lucentio als typischer ‘romanischer Verliebter’ kenntlich gemacht; in dieser Rolle verbleibt er bis zum Ende des Stückes,...”5
Hortensio and Gremio use equally poetic language when talking about their beloved Bianca. For example, Hortensio calls her “the jewel of my life” (I.ii.117), and Gremio uses the same imagery as Lucentio does. He says:
For she is sweeter than perfume itself (I.ii.151).
Apart from Petrarchan language, the wooing of Bianca’s suitors is marked by another characteristic, that is the fact that “In the courting of Bianca deception dominates.”6 Lucentio disguises as Cambio, Tranio as Lucentio and Hortensio pretends to be Litio. While Hortensio uses music to mask his wooing, Lucentio uses Latin. This shows that they neither want to reveal their nature nor do they want know Bianca’s, that is why their love remains superficial and does not include real intimacy.
Bianca’s suitors’ reactions to Katherina’s assumed wildness (cf. I.i.105-133) show that they “prefer the compliant woman to the defiant one who seeks to preserve her individuality”7. Although Bianca is not really as mild as she is said to be, she fits the conventional idea of a woman far better that Katherina does.
Schomburg criticises that all characters except for Katherina and Petruchio “sind von typischer Allgemeinheit und mit wenigen großen Strichen angedeutet”8. However, a more detailed characterization of the other characters is not necessary, as the figures in the Bianca-plot merely serve as types in order to emphasize the contrast between the two concepts of love.
2.2.2 Unconventional love: Petruchio and Katherina
Petruchio and Katherina both are unconventional characters, therefore their relationship, too, is very unconventional. When Petruchio hears about Katherina for the first time, he is attracted by two things, firstly by her money and secondly by “the challenge of capturing her”9.
Petruchio’s wooing is very different from that of Bianca’s suitors. Rohrsen states, “Petruchio dagegen gibt sich als völlig unromantischer Freier.”10 He uses plainer language and is far more open and frank about his intentions; he even tells Katherina directly that he is determined to tame her:
For I am he am born to tame you, Kate,
And bring you from a wild Kate to a Kate
Conformable as other household Kates. (II.i.269-271)
Already here he shows that he does not demand total submission; he only wants the “normal”, “sensible” submission of a wife to her husband, the one that has its limits and is based on mutual love and respect. As he is very self-confident, he is convinced that he will easily achieve his aim of taming Katherina.
His taming does not prove itself to be a training which is based on physical violence, although the lines
... I’ll tell you what, sir, and she stand
him but little, he will throw a figure in her face
and disfigure her with it that she shall have no
more eyes to see withal than a cat (I.ii.111-114),
spoken by his servant Grumio, suggest that he is capable of violent behaviour.11 He also refrains from forcing her to consummate the marriage on the wedding night and, like that, shows that he has a certain amount of respect for Katherina’s ownership of her own body.12 The taming occurs on another level; Petruchio shows Katherina the effects of behaviour similar to hers on those affected, for example by letting her wait on their wedding and by finally appearing there in a very unconventional attire.13 Most of his taming relies on words rather than on actions, for example by deliberately misunderstanding Katherina (cf. II.i.182-272). However, Petruchio also uses some “traditional” methods of taming a Shrew; he deprives her of food and sleep. (cf. IV.i.184-194). In his speech to the audience he points out that he does not like doing all those things to her, but he does not know any other way to deal with her. (cf. IV.i.197f.)
In the course of the play it becomes evident that the relationship between Katherina and Petruchio is far more than that of the tamer and the tamed, it is that of a loving couple. Katherina notices that Petruchio appreciates her far more than her environment has done up that moment, and therefore she resigns herself up to a certain degree to the behaviour which is expected of her.14 Moreover, she is ready to show her affection to Petruchio because he does the same to her. This can be seen in the following lines:
Pet. First kiss me, Kate, and we will.
Kath. What, in the midst of the street?
Pet. What, art thou ashamed of me?
Kath. No, sir, God forbid; but ashamed to kiss.
Pet. Why, then, let’s go home again. Come, sirrah, let’s away. Kath. Nay, I will give thee a kiss. Now pray thee, love, stay. Pet. Is not this well? Come, my sweet Kate. Better once than never, for never too late. (V.ii.131-138)
This passage does not show Katherina’s total submission, but it shows the affectionate, intimate love which has developed between her and Petruchio. Their love is based on more than romantic attraction or blind submission of the wife, they are friends and companions.15
The final scene of The Taming of the Shrew shows “the triumph of the unconventional over the conventional”16, it shows that Katherina’s and Petruchio’s marriage, which has started rather unconventionally, seems to have better chances of being a happy one than those of Lucentio and Hortensio, which are conventional.
By contrasting the two concepts of love throughout the play and by presenting the conventional love between Bianca and her wooers as deceptive and superficial, Shakespeare speaks out in clearly favour of the unconventional concept of love present in the relationship between Petruchio and Katherina.
Love concepts in Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew
I. Primary Literature
Shakespeare, William, The Taming of the Shrew, ed. by Brian Morris (London, 1981), The Arden Shakespeare.
II. Secondary Literature
Hillegass, L. L., The Taming of the Shrew - Notes (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1971), Cliffs Notes.
Schomburg, Elias Hugo, The Taming of the Shrew - Eine Studie zu Shaksperes Kunst (Halle a. S., 1904).
Dash, Irene G., “Challenging Patterns - The Taming of the Shrew”, in: Wooing, Wedding and Power: Women in Shakespeare ’ s Plays (New York, 1981), pp. 33-64.
Hehl, Ursula, “Die narzißtische Symptomatik als Reaktion auf die Diskriminierung der Frau in der patriarchalischen Gesellschaft - The Taming of the Shrew ” , in: Manifestationen narzißtischer Persönlichkeitsstörungen in Shakespeares romantischen Komödien (Trier, 1995), pp. 213-224.
Rohrsen, Peter , “ The Taming of the Shrew ” , in: Die Preisrede auf die Geliebte in Shakespeares Komödien und Romanzen (Heidelberg, 1977), pp.228-231.
Tillyard, E. M. W., “The Taming of the Shrew”, in: Shakespeare ’ s Early Comedies (London, 1965), pp. 73-111).
1 All references to the primary text The Taming of the Shrew refer to this edition:
Shakespeare, William, The Taming of the Shrew, ed. by Brian Morris (London, 1981), The Arden Shakespeare.
2 Hehl, Ursula, Manifestationen narzißtischer Persönlichkeitsstörungen in Shakespeare ’ s romantischen Komödien (Trier, 1995), p. 213.
3 Tillyard, E. M. W., Shakespeare ’ s Early Comedies (London, 1965), p. 73.
4 cf. Dash, Irene G., Wooing, Wedding and Power: Women in Shakespeare ’ s Plays (New York, 1981), p. 57.
5 Rohrsen, Peter, Die Preisrede auf die Geliebte in Shakespeare ’ s Komödien und Romanzen (Heidelberg, 1977), pp. 228f.
6 Dash, Irene G. (1981), p. 50.
7 Dash, Irene G. (1981), p. 43.
8 Schomburg, Elias Hugo, “The Taming of the Shrew” (Halle a. S., 1904), p. 101.
9 Hillegass, L. L., The Taming of the Shrew - Notes (Lincoln, Nebraska,1971), p. 56.
10 Rohrsen, Peter (1977), p. 229.
11 cf. Hehl, Ursula (1995), p. 215.
12 cf. Dash, Irene G. (1981), p. 36.
13 cf. Hehl, Ursula (1995), p. 219.
14 cf. Dash, Irene G. (1981), p. 61.
15 cf. Dash, Irene G. (1981), p. 61.
16 Dash, Irene G. (1981), p. 64.