Honor killing may be defined as the killing of a family member who has brought dishonor to the prestige of the family. This practice is notorious in Asian countries and becoming common in western countries where the usual targets are girls and women. The main reasons for such killings are attributed to women who have dishonored their families by engaging in practices which are forbidden within patriarchal or orthodox societies .
At least 20,000 women die around the world due to these killings each year and this is becoming alarming as the usual targets are adolescent girls and women who above manifested the desires to emancipate. It is a notable fact to attribute this phenomenon to Asia because the cases reported are basically from its countries -particularly India.
In India, for instance ,the caste system being deeply routed within the hierarchy of the society ,even after the endeavors of Gandhi and his reforms to protect marginalized groups from discrimination , this practice has continued to strive far and wide :so to understand Honor Killings ,the concept of caste discrimination should be considered.
The simplest form of caste discrimination example is likely a boy from a lower caste engaging in a relationship with a higher caste girl ,the consequence is not only a refusal of such alliance ,but a repressive reaction incurred by the couple –case studies have literally unveiled the truth on matters of a girl who has eloped with a dalit boy being savagely burnt and killed .
Many African countries do follow the same trend. One notable incident was the disappearance of Kay ,the youngest wife of IdI Amin ,dicatator of Uganda known for his atrocities -though not confirmed ,it is believed that Kaye might have been literally executed for having an affair with Idi Amin’s Doctor and health minister.
This practice is however not limited only to women and in within the Asian countries :the western countries have also cases of honor killings where the husband or boy of a family have been executed on mere engagement into extra conjugal liaisons or homosexuality –which is widely a disputed issue .
The Impact of homosexuality and infidelity is merely that,both are considered against the ethics of religion ,who above all encourages reproduction of the species in the ways prescribed in the holy texts. Biologically a man is compatible with a women and the result of all these is procreation as proved by science ,but if two human beings of the same sex couple together there is logically no reproduction .On the religious field this triggers the violation of morality and encourages repression –in the form of honor killings .
The issue of Honour killing is wide and complex .Though governments endeavor to bring laws to punish this crime , it continues to thrive throughout societies that seem to have conserved jealously this method not willing to change .Surprisingly this phenomenon seem to progress to the west despite educational reforms and women emancipation campaigns against it –the change of mentality proving to be a herculean task to tackle and the attitude to this problem a real puzzle.
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Honor killing in India
An honor killing or honour killing (also called a customary killing) is the murder of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief of the perpetrators (and potentially the wider community) that the victim has brought dishonour upon the family or community. Honour killings are directed mostly against women and girls. The perceived dishonor is normally the result of one of the following behaviors, or the suspicion of such behaviors:
- dressing in a manner unacceptable to the family or community,
- wanting to terminate or prevent an arranged marriage or desiring to marry by own choice,
- engaging in heterosexual sexual acts outside marriage, or even due to a non-sexual relationship perceived as inappropriate, and
- engaging in homosexual acts. Women and girls are killed at a much higher rate than men.
Recently, there has been a spate of honor killings in the country and this has led the government to decide what laws should be put in place to stop this heinous crime. Also whether the Hindu Marriage Act should be reformed or not is being debated. So what is the definition of honour killing and what leads families to commit this heinous crime so that they can protect their family honour? Is this practice prevalent only in India or is it prevalent in other parts of the world also? What are the misconceptions regarding honour killing and what are the solutions to stop this crime from spreading? These are the questions that society find the answer…
In my opinion Honour killing is defined as a death that is awarded to a woman of the family for marrying against the parent's wishes, having extramarital and premarital relationships, marrying within the same gotra or outside one's caste or marrying a cousin from a different caste. Honour killing is different from the dowry deaths that are also a very common practice in India as, in the case of dowry deaths, the perpetrators of that action claim that they have not been given enough material rewards for accepting the woman into the family. In that case there is a lot of harassment from the in-laws and more times than one, it has been noted that the wife commits suicide rather than being killed by the in-laws, though it has to be said that she has been mentally killed, if not physically. We have had a tradition of honour killing. This tradition was first viewed in its most horrible form during the Partition of the country in between the years 1947 and 1950 when many women were forcefully killed so that family honour could be preserved.
Now, there are various reasons why people or family members decide to kill the daughter in the name of preserving their family honour. The most obvious reason for this practice to continue in India, albeit, at a much faster and almost daily basis, is because of the fact that the caste system continues to be at its rigid best and also because people from the rural areas refuse to change their attitude to marriage. According to them, if any daughter dares to disobey her parents on the issue of marriage and decides to marry a man of her wishes but from another gotra or outside her caste, it would bring disrepute to the family honour and hence they decide to give the ultimate sentence, that is death, to the daughter. Now as has become the norm, the son-in-law is killed as well. Sociologists believe that the reason why honour killings continue to take place is because of the continued rigidity of the caste system. Hence the fear of losing their caste status through which they gain many benefits makes them commit this heinous crime. The other reason why honour killings are taking place is because the mentality of people has not changed and they just cannot accept that marriages can take place in the same gotra or outside one's caste. The root of the cause for the increase in the number of honour killings is because the formal governance has not been able to reach the rural areas and as a result. Thus, this practices continues though it should have been removed by now.
There are various misconceptions regarding the practice of honor killing. The first misconception about honor killing is that this is a practice that is limited to the rural areas. The truth is that it is spread over such a large geographical area that we cannot isolate honor killings to rural areas only, though one has to admit that majority of the killings take place in the rural areas. But it has also been seen recently that even the metropolitan cities like Delhi and Tamil Nadu are not safe from this crime because 5 honor killings were reported from Delhi and in Tamil Nadu; a daughter and son in law were killed due to marriage into the same gotra. So it can be seen clearly that honor killing is not isolated to rural areas but also to urban areas and as already pointed out, it has a very wide geographical spread. The second misconception regarding honor killing is that it has religious roots. Even if a woman commits adultery, there have to be four male witnesses with good behavior and reputation to validate the charge. Furthermore only the State can carry out judicial punishments, but never an individual vigilante. So, we can clearly see that there is no religious backing or religious roots for this heinous crime.
What can we do to prevent such a thing from happening? Firstly, the mentality of the people has to change. And when we say that the mentality has to change, we mean to say that parents should accept their children's wishes regarding marriage as it is they who have to lead a life with their life partners and if they are not satisfied with their life partner then they will lead a horrible married life which might even end in suicide. Secondly, we need to have stricter laws to tackle these kinds of killings as this is a crime which cannot be pardoned because. Humans do not have the right to write down death sentences of innocent fellow humans.