Sponsored by: ABA Standing Committee on Lawyers' Professional Liability and Long & Levit, LLP
Deadline for Submission
ONLINE entries MUST be submitted by 11:59 PM CST on March 9, 2018.
MAILED entries MUST be postmarked by March 9, 2018.
The contest encourages original and innovative research and writing in the area of legal malpractice law, professional liability insurance and loss prevention.
* Cash award of $5,000.
* All-expense-paid trip to the Spring 2018 National Legal Malpractice Conference in Washington, DC.
The Ed Mendrzycki Essay Contest is conducted by the American Bar Association Standing Committee on Lawyers' Professional Liability and the San Francisco law firm of Long & Levit LLP.
The 2018 contest is administered and judged by a subcommittee designated by the ABA Standing Committee on Lawyers' Professional Liability.
The 2018 Contest Essay Hypothetical involves the ethical concerns arising under the Model Rules of Professional Conduct where a law firm seeks to affiliate itself with litigation funding companies, including undertaking representation of one such company and, in turn, recommending its services to the firm's clients.
Entries should be written as scholarly essays. All entries must be prepared for this contest and not previously published. Each entrant is required to assign to the ABA all rights, title and interest in the essay submitted. It is the policy of the ABA, however, to release all assigned rights in all but the winning essay.
Essays should not exceed 3,000 words, including quoted matter and citations. Footnotes are not permitted and citations should be incorporated into the main text.
Entrants may seek general feedback on their draft essays from professors, colleagues, and the like. An essay submitted to the competition, however, must be entirely the entrant's own work product and may not be written or edited by any other person.
The essay should be typewritten, double-spaced on 8 1/2" x 11" pages. The number of words on each page should be entered on the bottom right hand corner of each copy. The total number of words should be entered on the last page. In computing the number of words, all articles and prepositions should be counted. Count numbers and abbreviations as words. For example F.2d = 1 word; 746 F.2d 619 = 3 words.
Complete and sign one of the paper entry forms (PDF or Word) or you can use the Online Contest Entry & Agreement Form, providing your full name, address and telephone number as indicated.
For identification, an entry number will be assigned on receipt of the entry, and the entrant will be advised of the number. One cover sheet showing the name, address and telephone number of the entrant, together with the entrant's title for the entry, should be submitted with the essay. No identification other than the title should appear on the essays themselves. The cover sheet will be removed before the essay is read by the judges to assure objectivity in the judging process.
The contest is open to Young Lawyers Division or Law Student Division members of the ABA, in good standing as of March 9, 2018 according to the membership records of the Association. Excluded from the competition are previous winners; current ABA officers and members of the Board of Governors; employees of the ABA or its sections, divisions and committees; and officers and employees of the American Bar Foundation or the American Bar Endowment. Only one essay may be submitted by each entrant, and no co-authored essays will be accepted.
Essays will be judged by a subcommittee designated by the ABA Standing Committee on Lawyers' Professional Liability and the San Francisco law firm of Long & Levit LLP, whose decision will be final and whose names cannot be divulged. The ABA and the judges reserve the right to award no prize.
National Legal Malpractice Conference
The winner of the contest will receive round-trip coach airfare to the American Bar Association 2018 Spring National Legal Malpractice Conference in Washington DC, lodging for up to two nights during the conference, and will be a guest at conference meals and events.
For further information, contact Marcia Yarbrough at firstname.lastname@example.org or (312) 988-5763.
How to Submit Entries
If you would like to submit your entry electronically, you will need to fill out and submit the Contest Entry & Agreement Form (Online) with your essay attached. Your essay should not exceed 2.5 MB and should be in one of the following formats: MS Word, PDF, TXT, RTF, or HTML. Your entry must be submitted by 11:59 pm Central time on March 9, 2018.
If you would prefer to submit your entry by mail, you will need to download, print, and fill out one of our paper Contest Entry & Agreement Form (PDF or Word). The completed form and two copies of your essay should be mailed first-class, without folding, on or before March 9, 2018. U.S. Postal Service postmark will determine mailing date. The materials may also be sent via an express delivery service and shipped on or before March 9, 2018.
Entries should be mailed to:
American Bar Association
LPL Mendrzycki Essay Contest
ATTN: Marcia Yarbrough
321 North Clark Street
Chicago, IL 60654
This paper focuses on how Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) is used to treat and manage autism spectrum disorders. Thus, the paper appraises ABA, discussing its important components and how it works. The paper also succinctly discusses about the autism spectrum disorders. Finally, the paper concludes with an analysis of how ABA is used to treat autism spectrum disorders.
Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Studies have shown that one of the most effective modes of intervention in ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders) is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). ABA is also termed behavioral treatment or behavioral intervention. According to the research done by Wynn & Groen (2010), ABA produces comprehensive and long-term improvements in the most essential skill areas in children who have ASD, notwithstanding their age (p 809). Laving (2010) stated that the main objective of ABA as applied to ASD is to maximize the successes, while concurrently, reducing the failures (p763). ABA techniques make use of scientific principles, based on current behavioral learning theorems, to alter conducts in ASD patients by fostering socially-constructive repertoires and minimizing the problematical ones. ABA is a structure-based intervention that places much emphasis on the use of precise high-intensity teaching techniques to enhance language skills (such as imitation, cooperation and attention), and ensure that the affected children do obtain a collection of constructive manners (Wynn & Groen, 2010).
ASD, also termed as PDD (Pervasive Developmental Disorder), is an intense long-term developmental disability which normally manifests itself during the early childhood period. It incorporates a cluster of developmental disorders together with their associated symptoms that have varying levels of intensity.ASD is neuro-behavioral in nature, thus, its effects are severe. Usually, ASD is diagnosed in the child before he or she is three years old. It cause the effects outlined below. Restricted repetitive patterns of behavior characterized by obsession with the sensory features of physical entities. There are impairments in social affinity, with the most common feature being inability to establish and maintain proper peer relationships. There is delayed development of cognitive functions, thus cognitive impairment occurs. Also, there is impairment in communication, both verbal and non-verbal, as evidenced by absent or delayed development of spoken language (Pearson, 2011).
It has been postulated that ASD is caused by a neuro-developmental and neuro-operational dysfunction in the brain, though its correlation with the associated behavioral manifestations are still unclear. Also, epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between ASD and psychiatric disorders that are genetic in origin, with the hereditary factor in ASD being greater than 90%. It affects boys more than girls with a gender disparity ratio of 4:1, though no scientific model based on genetic studies has been able to explain this discrepancy. The ASD spectrum encompasses autistic disorder, Rett’s disorder, Asperger’s disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified).
The common comorbidities associated with ASD are intellectual disabilities, lack of functional speech, behavioral disorders (such as obsessive compulsive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, tics and self-injurious behaviors), anxiety, depression and Bipolar disorder. Screening for ASD is done at two levels; Level I screening with involves developmental surveillance, and Level II screening which involves diagnostic evaluation and comprehensive investigations for developmental disorders (Pearson, 2011).
Treatment for ASD can be categorized into two levels. The first level is the treatment of core symptoms, and this involves addressing the developmental, educational, and behavioral requirements of the individual with ASD. The second level of management involves other forms of treatment, such as physical, speech and occupational therapies, which are indispensable in the management of autistic disorder but they do not treat other disorders, for instance, developmental delays (Pearson, 2011).
ABA is a treatment program that basically makes use of repetitive reinforcements to teach particular skills to the students, while concurrently, minimizing and/or eradicating the inappropriate behaviors (Mendelsohn, 2010).
The nine principles of ABA are outlined below. First of all, there must be an individual program for each and every student. Each program must correspond to the strengths and needs of the student. The second principle is task analysis which involves the assessment for tasks (or skills) that need to be taught. These tasks are then broken down into steps that can be easily taught. The third principle is discrete trial and prompting, which involves teaching each step individually. Fourthly, reinforcement is used to fortify each step taught. Reinforcement involves motivating the students by use of rewards. The fifth principle is repetition and prompts fading. This involves frequent practice of each step until the student masters the required skills. Skill development is the sixth principle. It involves integrating each step systematically until the student can complete the whole task autonomously. The seventh principle is data collection, and this involves frequent compilation of factual information with the aim of monitoring the progress of the student, in terms of acquisition of the required skills, and, the effectiveness of the program as a whole. The eighth principle is generalization. This involves teaching the student how to perform the whole task at different times, among different kinds of people and in different settings. The ninth principle is developmental skill building. Here the learnt skills are integrated developmentally with the aim of building a strong foundation that will serve as the basis for inspiration for self-initiated long-term learning. Thus, ABA describes how to teach (Mendelsohn, 2010).
ABA has seven characteristics or dimensions which are explained below. The applied characteristics takes into consideration the short-term behavioral change, effects of these behavioral change in the person with ASD with regards to interpersonal interactions between him or her and the family, close relatives, educators and the general public. The second dimension is behavioral change, and this behavioral change must be measured using objective parameters and not non-behavioral substitutes. The analytical dimension in the applied setting is demonstrated by behavioral control and maintenance of moral ethical standards. The technological characteristic implies that the descriptions made in ABA studies or researches are detailed, clear and precise. Hence, such studies can be replicated by a researcher. The conceptually systematic characteristic involves the utilization of procedures and interventions; and the interpretation of the obtained results within the limits of the principles of the procedures employed. The dimension of effectiveness analyses the practicability of ABA procedures in treating ASD and achieving the essential practical or social objectives. Finally, the generality dimension involves maintenance or continued gradual changes and enhancements of a particular skill after the behavioral interventions, for that specific skill, has been withdrawn for a significant period (Mendelsohn, 2010).
ABA treatment of ASD involves the three step procedure explained below. First of all, there is the antecedent which involves the use of tact, mand, intraverbals, autoclitics; or physical/verbal stimulus, for instance, a request or command. Secondly, there is the response to the stimulus, such as a specific resultant behavioral response to a specific stimulus or lack of response to that particular stimulus. Finally, there is the consequence, which is either the establishment of a positive reinforcement, or lack of response for an inappropriate behavior. The behavior is measured using the following parameters: repeatability, temporal extent, temporal locus and derivative measures (Wynn & Groen, 2010).
The skills in ABA are divided into small discrete tasks which are subsequently taught using prompts that gradually fade out as the required skills are grasped. Positive reinforcement is done using verbal praise or any tangible object that the student considers rewarding. Punishments are normally discouraged, but non-injurious methods of punishment such as a light spray of water on the face, may be used as a mode of intervention in a child who is engaging in activities that may cause self-injury (Wynn & Groen, 2010).
Individual programming has two main components: the curriculum and the ABA teaching methods. The curriculum for students with ASD mostly caters for the areas that need attention. These areas include communication, difficult behaviors, language development, independent functioning, life skills, leisure and play skills; and, social interaction and emotional development. Hence, the ABA teaching methods encompasses the following strategies: prompt, fading, task analysis, discrete trail training, shaping and chaining, pivotal response training, modeling, social scripting or script fading, video instruction, priming, incidental teaching, and structured peer-play interactions (Mendelsohn, 2010).
Reinforcement in ABA is a systematic consequence aimed at increasing the frequency of desirable behavior, not just using rewards to motivate the student. Thus, reinforcement must be linked directly to the values of the student, and needs to be planned and monitored closely. The procedure for reinforcement is as follows. Initially, the behavior that needs to be modified is selected. Next, the most potent reinforces that will alter this behavior are selected. The reinforcements are then made immediately when the behavior under consideration is manifested. The reinforcement is more effective when the reinforcer follows the behavior closely. Lastly, data on that specific behavior is collected prior to, for the duration of and subsequent to the teaching strategy or intervention that had been put in place for monitoring the progress of the student (Mendelsohn, 2010).
The data collection tools of ABA are more useful than the common assessment methods. The assessment methods used in the teaching strategy include the following: data collection and graphing, benchmarks, checklists, rubrics, running records, anecdotal records and video recording. The following measurements are used during data collection: frequency of demonstration of the required skills, the number of times these skills were done appropriately, duration of time of the execution of these skills, measurement of how much prompting is utilized in skill development, and the ration of correct to incorrect responses. Data is collected during three occasions; prior to, during and subsequent to teaching. Prior to teaching data collection is used to establish the baseline for skill development. Data that is collected during teaching is used to assess the effectiveness of the materials and teaching strategies used, and the progress of the acquisition of the required skills. Data collection subsequent to teaching is used to assess skill acquisition and the maintenance of the acquired skills, for example, can the student demonstrate the skills several months after it was taught? The collected data is then recorded (Mendelsohn, 2010).
The recorded data is used for troubleshooting and decision-making processes. Troubleshooting involves searching for patterns in various aspects of school programming and in the school environment that slow down the standard rate of progress, and initiating the necessary systematic changes (Mendelsohn, 2010).
In generalization, the educators must frequently change the materials in order for the student to develop a broader concept of the skill being taught. The standard rule in generalization is that a skill must be demonstrated or performed in at least three different settings, with three different individuals and at three different times using various teaching materials and teaching aids. Also, the skill is considered to be mastered or leant effectively when the student can demonstrate the skill correctly and independently in 9 out of every 10 attempts (Mendelsohn, 2010).
An effective ABA teaching strategy must put into consideration plans for transitions. Examples of transition in an individual with ASD includes transition into a new school setting, between grade levels, between different activities in different settings, transition from high school life into adulthood and life transitions in general. An effective plan encompasses the following two features; identification of the transition challenges for the student and setting up of clear goals and a teaching stratagem for managing and addressing these challenges(Wynn & Groen, 2010).