B.Congress, by law and constitutional amendment,has steadily reduced state prerogatives in these matters.
The most important changes in elections have been thosethat extended the suffrage to women, AfricanAmericans, and 18-year-olds and made mandatory thedirect popular elections of senators.
Varying interpretations of the 15
Amendmentopened the door to all manners of stratagems to keep blacks from voting. One was a literary test; another required that a poll tax be paid; a third was the practiceof keeping blacks from voting in primary elections. Toallow whites who were illiterate or poor to vote, agrandfather clause was added to the law, saying that a person could vote even if he did not meet legalrequirements, if he or his ancestors had voted before1867.
There began a long, slow legal process of challenging in court each of these restrictions in turn.One by one the Supreme Court set most of them aside.The white primary finally fell in 1944.
A dramatic change did not occur until 1965,with the passage of the Voting Rights Act. This actsuspended the use of literacy tests and authorized theappointment of federal examiners who could order theregistration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50% of the voting-age population were registered or had voted in the past presidential election. It also provided criminal penalties for interfering with the rightto vote.
Women were kept away from the polls more by law thanintimidation, and when the laws changed, women almostimmediately began to vote in large numbers. It was notuntil the 19
Amendment to the Constitution was ratifiedin 1920 that women were allowed to vote.A.No dramatic changes occurred in the conduct of elections, the identity of the winners, or the substance of public policy.IV.The political impact of the youth vote was also less thanexpected. The Voting Rights Act of 1970 gave 18-year-olds the right to vote in federal elections beginning in1971. It also contained a provision lowering the votingage to 18 in state elections, but the Supreme Courtdeclared it unconstitutional.
Public opinion – The distribution of individual preferences or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population.
Random sample – In this type of sample, every individual has unknown and random chance of being selected.
Manifest opinion – A widely shared and consciously held view, like support for homeland security.
Political socialization - The process – most notably in families and schools – by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
Attentive public – Those citizens who follow public affairs carefully.
Voter registration – System designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility to vote by submitting the proper documents.
Australian ballot – A secret ballot printed by the state.
General election – Elections in which voters elect officeholders.
Primary election – Elections in which voters determine party nominees.
Presidential election – Elections held in years when the president is on the ballot.
Midterm election – Elections held midway between presidential elections.
Turnout – The proportion of the voting age public that votes, sometimes defined as the number of registered voters that vote.
Party identification – An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
Candidate appeal – How voters feel about a candidate’s background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities.
Prospective issue voting – Voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected.
Retrospective issue of voting – Holding incumbents, usually the president’s party, responsible for their records on issues, such as the economy or foreign policy.
Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 8: Public Opinion, Participation, And Voting" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2018. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-government/vocabulary/chapter-8-public-opinion-participation-and-voting/>.