Nt2640 Unit 1 Assignment

Presentation on theme: "Unit 10 WANs Chapters NT2640.U10.PS1"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 10 WANs Chapters 27-29 NT2640.U10.PS1
IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 1

2 Class Agenda 11/21/15Learning ObjectivesFinal Exam is in the next classUnit 9: Discussions and VideoLab Activities will be done in class.Assignments will be given in class.Break Times. 10 Minutes break in every 1 Hour.Note: Submit all Assignment and labs due today.

3 In this unit, students will demonstrate an:
ObjectivesIn this unit, students will demonstrate an:Understanding the WAN Point-to-Point Connections and ProtocolsUnderstanding of Frame Relay Concepts, Configuration, and Troubleshooting StepsIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 3

4 Point-to-Point WANs Chapter 27 NT2640.U10.PS1
IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 44

5 WAN types include the following: Point-to-Point Circuit Switching
Packet SwitchingIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 5

6 Point-to-PointA point-to-point connection is a single, pre-established path from the customer's network through a carrier network, such as a telco, to a customer's remote networkA point-to-point line is usually leased from a carrier and thus is often called a leased line.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 6

7 A circuit switching network allows data connections end points
A circuit switched network uses a dedicated connection between sitesIt is ideal for transmitting data that must arrive quickly in the order it is sentData is sent in a real time.Mostly for analog dataIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 7

8 Packet SwitchingA packet switched network allows data to be broken up into packets and sent across the shared resourcesPackets are transmitted along the most efficient route to the destinationPacket switching is ideal for transmitting data that can handle transmission delays, as is often the case with Web pages and .IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 8

9 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Key features of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP):Used on a wide variety of physical interfaces including asynchronous serial, synchronous serial (dial up), and ISDN.Supports multiple Network layer protocols, including IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and numerous othersOptional authentication is provided through PAP (2-way authentication) or CHAP (3-way authentication).IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 9

10 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
It supports multilink connections, load-balancing traffic over multiple physical links.It includes Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) which can detect link errors and automatically terminate links with excessive errors.It includes looped link detection that can identify when messages sent from a router are looped back to that router. This is done through routers sending magic numbers in communications. If a router receives a packet with its own magic number, the link is looped.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 10

11 PPP protocolsPPP uses two main protocols to establish and maintain the link.Link Control Protocol (LCP).The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and tearing down the PPP link.Network Control Protocol (NCP) The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is used to agree upon and configure Network layer protocols to use (such as IP, IPX, or AppleTalk)IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 11

12 PPP ConceptsPPP provides several basic but important functions that are useful on a leased line that connects two devices, as reviewed in the following list:Definition of a header and trailer that allows delivery of a data frame over the linkSupport for both synchronous and asynchronous linksA protocol type field in the header, allowing multiple Layer 3 protocols to pass over the same linkBuilt-in authentication tools: Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)Control protocols for each higher-layer protocol that rides over PPP, allowing easier integration and support of those protocolsIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 12

13 The PPP Protocol FieldOne of the more important features included in the PPP standard, but not in the HDLC standard, is the protocol field.The protocol field identifies the type of packet inside the frame. When PPP was created, this field allowed packets from the many different Layer 3 protocols to pass over a single link.Today, the protocol type field still provides the same function, even for the support of two different versions of IP (IPv4 and IPv6).PPP defines a set of Layer 2 control messages that perform various link control functions. These control functions fall into two main categories:Those needed regardless of the Layer 3 protocol sent across the linkThose specific to each Layer 3 protocolIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 13

14 PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP)
.PPP LCP FeaturesFunctionLCP FeatureDescriptionLooped link detectionMagic numberDetects if the link is looped, and disables the interface, allowing rerouting over a working route.Error detectionLink Quality Monitoring (LQM)Disables an interface that exceeds an error percentage threshold, allowing rerouting over better routes.Multilink supportMultilink PPPLoad-balances traffic over multiple parallel links.AuthenticationPAP and CHAPExchanges names and passwords so that each device can verify the identity of the device on the other end of the link.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 14

15 Basic PPP Configuration
VIDEOIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 15

16 High Level Data Link Control
“Wide Area Networks” introduced the main concepts of HDLC. Briefly, HDLC acts like PPP in many ways.It works on point-to-point serial links. It adds both a header and trailer when encapsulating IP packets, and includes an FCS field in the trailer.And because HDLC and PPP differ, the two routers on both ends of the link must use the same WAN data link protocol (either HDLC or PPP).Because Cisco IOS defaults to use HDLC on serial interfaces, you need to understand it better.However, before leaving the topic of WAN configuration, you should know a little more about HDLC configuration.IOS defaults to use HDLC as the data link protocol, so there are no required commands that relate to Layer 2.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 16

17 Frame Relay Concepts Chapter 28 NT2640-U10-PS1
IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 1717

18 Frame RelayFrame relay is a standard for packet switching WAN communications over high-quality, digital lines. Frame-relay networks:Provide error detection but not error recovery. It is up to end devices to request a retransmission of lost packets.Can provide data transfer up to 1.54 Mbps.Have a variable packet size (called a frame).Can be used as a backbone connection to LANs.Can be implemented over a variety of connection lines (56K, T-1, T-3).Operate at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI modelIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 18

19 Frame Relay OverviewFrame Relay networks provide more features and benefits than simple point-to-point WAN links, but to do that, Frame Relay protocols are more detailed.For example, Frame Relay networks are multiaccess networks, which means that more than two devices can attach to the network, similar to LANs. Unlike with LANs, you cannot send a data link layer broadcast over Frame Relay.Therefore, Frame Relay networks are called nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) networks.Also, because Frame Relay is multiaccess, it requires the use of an address that identifies to which remote router each frame is addressed.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 19

20 Components of Frame Relay
A leased line is installed between the router and a nearby Frame Relay switch; this link is called the access link.To ensure that the link is working, the device outside the Frame Relay network, called the data terminal equipment (DTE), exchanges regular messages with the Frame Relay switch.These keepalive messages, along with other messages, are defined by the Frame Relay Local Management Interface (LMI) protocol.The routers are considered DTE, and the Frame Relay switches are data communications equipment (DCE).IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 20

21 Frame Relay Terms and Concepts Term Description Virtual circuit (VC)
A logical concept that represents the path that frames travel between DTEs. VCs are particularly useful when you compare Frame Relay to leased physical circuits.Permanent virtual circuit (PVC)A predefined VC. A PVC can be equated to a leased line in concept.Switched virtual circuit (SVC)A VC that is set up dynamically when needed. An SVC can be equated to a dial connection in concept.Data terminal equipment (DTE)DTEs are connected to a Frame Relay service from a telecommunications company. They typically reside at sites used by the company buying the Frame Relay service.Data communications equipment (DCE)Frame Relay switches are DCE devices. DCEs are also known as data circuit-terminating equipment. DCEs are typically in the service provider’s network.Access linkThe leased line between the DTE and DCE.Access rate (AR)The speed at which the access link is clocked. This choice affects the connection’s price.Committed Information Rate (CIR)The speed at which bits can be sent over a VC, according to the business contract between the customer and provider.Data-link connection identifier (DLCI)A Frame Relay address used in Frame Relay headers to identify the VC.Nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA)A network in which broadcasts are not supported, but more than two devices can be connected.Local Management Interface (LMI)The protocol used between a DCE and DTE to manage the connection. Signaling messages for SVCs, PVC status messages, and keepalives are all LMI messages.IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 21

22 Frame Relay StandardsThe definitions for Frame Relay are contained in documents from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).The Frame Relay Forum a vendor consortium, originally defined several Frame Relay specifications, many of which predate the original ITU and ANSI specifications, with the ITU and ANSI picking up many of the forum’s standards.(The Frame Relay Forum has disbanded, because its mission was complete.)IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 22

23 Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting Chapter 29 NT2640. U10
Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting Chapter NT2640.U10.PS1IP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 2323

24 Frame Rely VIDEOIP Networking: Unit 10: Slide 24

25 All answers to overdue labs should be submitted in the next class.
Lab Activities.Complete 10 Lab in class.All answers to overdue labs should be submitted in the next class.© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 25

26 Unit 10 assignment will be given in class.
© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc.NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 26

Presentation on theme: "© 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 7: Slide 1 Unit 7 Advanced IP Routing Chapter 19 to 21."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 7: Slide 1 Unit 7 Advanced IP Routing Chapter 19 to 21

2 Class Agenda 10/31/15 Learning Objectives Unit 7: Discussions and Video Lab Activities will be done in class. Assignments will be given in class. Break Times. 10 Minutes break in every 1 Hour. Note: Submit all Assignment and labs due today.

3 Finding All Subnet IDs Given a single class A, B, or C network, and the single subnet mask to use for all subnets, what are all the subnet IDs? When learning how to answer this question, you can think about the problem in either binary or in decimal. The decimal process begins by identifying the first, or numerically lowest, subnet ID. After that, the process identifies a pattern in all subnet IDs for a given subnet mask, so that you can find each successive subnet ID through simple addition. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 3

4 The First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet The first step in finding all subnet IDs of one network is incredibly simple: copy the network ID. That is, take the class A, B, or C network ID – in other words, the classful network ID – and write it down as the first subnet ID. No matter what class A, B, or C network you use, and no matter what subnet mask you use, the first (numerically lowest) subnet ID is equal to the network ID. For example, if you begin with classful network 172.20.0.0, no matter what the mask is, the first subnet ID is 172.20.0.0. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 4

5 Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number Subnet IDs follow a predictable pattern, at least when using our assumption of a single subnet mask for all subnets of a network. The pattern is equal to the magic number. To review, the magic number is 256, minus the mask’s decimal value, in a particular octet that the book refers to as the interesting octet. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 5

6 Generic Subnets Chart Table 18-1 Generic List-All-Subnets Chart Octet1234 Mask Magic Number Network Number/Zero Subnet Next Subnet Last Subnet Broadcast Subnet Out of Range (Used by Process) © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 6

7 Finding the Magic Number Step 1. Write down the subnet mask, in decimal, in the first empty row of the table. Step 2. Identify the interesting octet, which is the one octet of the mask with a value other than 255 or 0. Draw a rectangle around the column of the interesting octet. Step 3. Calculate and write down the magic number by subtracting the subnet mask’s interesting octet from 256. Step 4. Write down the classful network number, which is the same number as the zero subnet, in the next empty row of the list-all-subnets chart. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 7

8 Finding the Magic Number Step 5. To find each successive subnet number:  a. For the three uninteresting octets, copy the previous subnet number’s values.  b. For the interesting octet, add the magic number to the previous subnet number’s interesting octet. Step 6. Once the sum calculated in Step 5b reaches 256, stop the process. The number with the 256 in it is out of range, and the previous subnet number is the broadcast subnet.

9 Results of First Four Steps: 172.16.0.0, 255.255.240.0 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 9

10 Results on 172.16.0.0, 255.255.240.0 Step 1. Record mask 255.255.240.0, which was given as part of the problem statement. Step 2. The mask’s third octet is neither 0 nor 255, making the third octet interesting. Step 3. Because the mask’s value in the third octet is 240, the magic number = 256 – 240 = 16. Step 4. Because the network ID is 172.16.0.0, the first subnet ID, the zero subnet, is also 172.16.0.0. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 10

11 List of Subnet IDs: 172.16.0.0, 255.255.240.0 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 11

12 Results of First Four Steps: 192.168.1.0, 255.255.255.224 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 12

13 List of Subnet IDs: 192.168.1.0, 255.255.255.224 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 6: Slide 13

14 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Advanced Networking: : Unit 1: Slide 14 Check Point 1.Describe the magic number process 2.What is subnet ID or zero subnet? 3.What is the subnet zero for IP address 192.168.131.29/26?

15 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Advanced Networking: Unit 7: Slide 15 Objectives In this unit, students will demonstrate an: Understanding of VLSM including Design and Subnetting Concepts Understanding of Route Summarization Concepts Understanding of the Host Networking Utilities for Troubleshooting IP Networking Issues including “ping” and “traceroute” Understanding of Host & Router IP Routing Troubleshooting including Commons Steps Understanding of OSPF including Neighbor Discovery and Establishment, Topology Exchange and Route Selection Processes Understanding of OSPF Areas, Router Types, and Convergence Understanding of OSPF Configuration and Verification Steps

16 VLSM VLSM occurs when an internetwork uses more than one mask in different subnets of a single Class A, B, or C network. VLSM allows engineers to reduce the number of wasted IP addresses in each subnet, allowing more subnets and avoiding having to obtain another registered IP network number from regional IP address assignment authorities., even when using private IP networks (as defined in RFC 1918), large corporations might still need to conserve the address space, again creating a need to use VLSM. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 16

17 Classless and Classful Routing Protocols For a routing protocol to support VLSM, the routing protocol must advertise not only the subnet number but also the subnet mask when advertising routes. A routing protocol must include subnet masks in its routing updates to support manual route summarization. Each IP routing protocol is considered to be either classless or classful, based on whether the routing protocol does (classless) or does not (classful) send the mask in routing updates. Each routing protocol is either classless or classful by its very nature; no commands exist to enable or disable whether a particular routing protocol is a classless or classful routing protocol. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 17

18 Classless and Classful Interior IP Routing Protocols Routing Protoco l Is It Classless? Sends Mask in Updates Supports VLSM Supports Manual Route Summarization RIP-1No IGRPNo RIP-2Yes EIGRPYes OSPFYes © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 18

19 Manual Route Summarization Small networks might have only a few dozen routes in their routers’ routing tables. The larger the network, the larger the number of routes. In fact, Internet routers have more than 100,000 routes in some cases. The routing table might become too large in large IP networks. As routing tables grow, they consume more memory in a router. Also, each router can take more time to route a packet, because the router has to match a route in the routing table, and searching a larger table generally takes more time. And with a large routing table, it takes more time to troubleshoot problems, because the engineers working on the network need to sift through more information. Route summarization reduces the size of routing tables while maintaining routes to all the destinations in the network. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 19

20 Route Summarization Concepts Engineers use route summarization to reduce the size of the routing tables in the network. Route summarization causes some number of more-specific routes to be replaced with a single route that includes all the IP addresses covered by the subnets in the original routes. Summary routes, which replace multiple routes, must be configured by a network engineer. Route summarization works much better when the network was designed with route summarization in mind. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 20

21 Route Summarization Configuration Route summarization configuration differs with different routing protocols; Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) is used. The summary routes for EIGRP are created by the ip summary-address interface subcommands on Yosemite and Seville in this case. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 21

22 Autosummarization And Manual summarization Manual route summarization can improve routing efficiency, reduce memory consumption, and improve convergence by reducing the length of routing tables. Automatic summarization of routes at the boundaries of classful networks, uses a feature called autosummarization. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 22

23 Autosummarization Support and Configuration Classful routing protocols must use autosummarization. Some classless routing protocols support autosummarization, defaulting to use it, but with the ability to disable it with the no auto-summary router subcommand. Below summarizes the facts about autosummarization on Cisco routers. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 23 * Autosummarization Support and Defaults Routing ProtocolClassless?Supports Autosummarization? Defaults to Use Autosummarization? 1 Can Disable Autosummarization? RIP-1NoYes No RIP-2Yes EIGRPYes OSPFYesNo——

24 Chapter 20 “Troubleshooting II” © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 24

25 The ping and traceroute Commands Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) TCP/IP includes ICMP, a protocol designed to help manage and control the operation of a TCP/IP network. The ICMP protocol provides a wide variety of information about a network’s health and operational status. Control Message is the most descriptive part of the name. ICMP helps control and manage IP’s work by defining a set of messages and procedures about the operation of IP. Therefore, ICMP is considered part of TCP/IP’s network layer. Because ICMP helps control IP, it can provide useful troubleshooting information. In fact, the ICMP messages sit inside an IP packet, with no transport layer header, so ICMP is truly an extension of the TCP/IP network layer. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 25

26 The ping Command and the ICMP Echo Request and Echo Reply The ping command uses the ICMP Echo Request and Echo Reply messages. When people say they sent a ping packet, they really mean that they sent an ICMP Echo Request. These two messages are somewhat self-explanatory. The Echo Request simply means that the host to which it is addressed should reply to the packet. The Echo Reply is the ICMP message type that should be used in the reply. The Echo Request includes some data that can be specified by the ping command; whatever data is sent in the Echo Request is sent back in the Echo Reply. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 26

27 The Ping Command The ping command lists various responses that in some cases imply that an unreachable message was received. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 27 ping Command CodeDescription !ICMP Echo Reply received.Nothing was received before the ping command timed out UICMP unreachable (destination) received NICMP unreachable (network/subnet) received MICMP Can’t Fragment message received ?Unknown packet received

28 The ICMP Time Exceeded Message The ICMP Time Exceeded message notifies a host when a packet it sent has been discarded because it was “out of time.” Packets are not actually timed, but to prevent them from being forwarded forever when there is a routing loop, each IP header uses a Time to Live (TTL) field. Routers decrement the TTL by 1 every time they forward a packet; if a router decrements the TTL to 0, it throws away the packet. This prevents packets from rotating forever. Figure 7-3 shows the basic process. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 28

29 TTL Decremented to 0 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 29

30 The traceroute Command The ping command is a powerful troubleshooting tool that can be used to answer the question “Does the route from here to there work?” The traceroute command provides an arguably better troubleshooting tool because not only can it determine if the route works, but it can supply the IP address of each router in the route.  If the route is not working, traceroute can identify the best places to start troubleshooting the problem.  The IOS traceroute command uses the Time Exceeded message and the IP TTL field to identify each successive router in a route. The traceroute command sends a set of messages with increasing TTL values, starting with 1.  The traceroute command expects these messages to be discarded when routers decrement the TTL to 0, returning Time Exceeded messages to the traceroute command. The source IP addresses of the Time Exceeded messages identify the routers that discarded the messages, which can then be displayed by the traceroute command. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 30

31 show ip route Reference The show ip route command plays a huge role in troubleshooting IP routing and IP routing protocol problems. Below shows the output of the show ip route command. show ip route Command Output Reference © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 7: Slide 31

32 Lab Activities. Complete 7 Lab in class. All answers to overdue labs should be submitted in the next class. © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 32

33 Assignment Unit 7 assignment will be given in class. Reading Assignment: Read chapter 22 and 23 © 2011 ITT Educational Services Inc. NT-2640 Wan Technologies: Unit 4: Slide 33

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